Tuesday, June 26, 2012

Trincomalee, Sri Lanka

Trincomalee, one of the finest natural deep-water harbors in the world is located 257 km north-east of Colombo, capital city of Sri Lanka. Trincomalee is home to fine beaches of Nilaveli, Uppaveli and off-shore Pigeon Island. Recently Trincomalee has become popular as a Whale Watching destination too. The Dive centers at Nilaveli, Uppaveli support the tourists to enjoy their holidays in diving, snorkeling and swimming. Trincomalee district, called Gokanna or Gokarna in the historical chronicles and inscriptions, being studded with a multitude of ruins of ancient Buddhist temples, is a major Sinhalese Buddhist cultural and archeological site of Sri Lanka. The seven hot springs at Kanniyai located just 8km from Trincomalee attract regular crowds throughout the year in view of the therapeutic properties of water therein varying in temperature from one well to the other.

Trincomalee, in history

Gokarna in Trincomalee, Mantota in Mannar and Dambakolapattuna in Jaffna, among other sea-ports of Sri Lanka, had been great ports of ancient Three Sinhala since 543 B.C. Trincomalee or Gokanna or Gokarna or Siri Gonamala as the ancient sea-port town was recorded in the historical chronicles of Sri Lanka, is the harbor where Prince Panduvasudeva, King Vijya’s nephew sailed into Sri Lanka from Sinhapura, India. “Badda Kachchayana who later became the queen of King Panduwasdeva (505-474 B.C.) with her party of royal maidens too landed in Siri Gonamala harbor. She was a sister of Prince Digha, the founder of Dighavapi.

In an essay entitled, Aryan settlements and early kings, published in the Concise History of Ceylon by Sri Lanka’s foremost historian a pre-eminent archeologist Dr. Senarath Paranavithana writing about the king who ruled Ceylon (Sri Lanka) after the first king Vijaya said, “Panduvasdeva with thirty two followers, it is said, arrived in Ceylon in the guise of mendicant monks. They landed at the mouth of the Mahakandara River at the port of Gokanna, the modern Trincomalee according to the commentator of the chronicle (Mahavamsa)”.

E. T. Kannangara, in “Jaffna and the Sinhala heritage” wrote, Trincomalee during the periods of the Sinhala kings was one of the chief trading centers in Sri Lanka. Sri Gokarna, Siri Gokanna, Sri Gonapura, Siri Gonamala, Gonagamaka Pattana, Gonagama-Patuna, and much earlier Gokannatitta were some of the names attached to this place in the chronicles. The present Sinhala name Thirikunamala is apparently a derivation from Siri Gonamala. The conversion of the name follows the pattern that Sinhala names Somapura, Kokavila, Mampe and Valigama Madakalapuva being converted into Sampur, Kokuvil, Manipay, Valikamam and Mattakalapu.

The conversion of Gokarna to ‘Tirukonamalai’ first appears in a Tamil inscription dated to 10th or 11th century A.D. Buddhist Vihara at Gokanna called Sri Gokarna Vihara built in the reign of King Mahasen (276-303 A.C.) was the earliest religious edifice in Trincomalee. Being on a rock it was also called Vehera Gala (Vihara on a rock). Gokanna Buddhist Vihare temple was expanded by King Agbo V (718-724 AD) and demolished by the Portuguese to build a fortress in the 16th century. Gokanna Vihare is one of the 74 Buddhist sites identified at Trincomalee district by the Department of Archeology of Sri Lanka. Swami Rock, the highest point in Fort Frederick is an ancient site where there had been Buddhist shrines.

Some of the other locations are as follows.

Velgam Vehera Buddhist monastery
Velgam Vehera ancient Buddhist monastery is located 16 km north-west of Trincomaleeoff the Trincomalee - Horowupothana road. An inscription on a rock halfway up the hill on the summit on which are the remains of a stupa belongs to the reign of Batiya Maharaja or King Bhatika Tissa II (circa 149 A.D.). It records the gift of revenue from certain fields to the Abagara Vihare (Abhagiri or Amaragiri Vihare) at Velgama by a General named Abaya. Dr. Paranavithana was of the view that this record proved that the name by which the shrine was known in the eleventh and twelfth centuries. It was Dr. Paranavithana’s view that the date of the original foundation of the vihare was no doubt considerably earlier than the reign of King Bhatika Tissa II.

Galmetiyawa in the Kinniya AGA’s division: below the Galmetiyawa reservoir some four miles off the 102nd mile on the Trincomalee road. A Buddha statue sculptured in marble was found here. Although the statue appeared to have been worn out by the action of flowing water it was beautifully sculptured in the Amaravati style. Around the statue were the remains of ancient buildings. Bricks and pieces of pottery were lying around.

Ancient site at Kuchchaveli: The torso of a limestone Buddha statue was found at this site. The statue is a beautiful work in the Amaravati style. Pieces of flat tiles and bricks were found in large quantities. It is possible that there was a monastic establishment of the Anuradhapura period at this site. On a boulder of rock at the foot of a hillock is a sculpture consisting of 16 dagaba presentations. The Buddha statue was transferred to the Archaeological Museum in Trincomalee.

Ancient site at Kantalai: (Tract 13 of Kantalai sugar farm) At this site two broken Buddha statues were found along with guard stones. There were also pieces of bricks and tiles. The Buddha statue depicted as seated under the nine hooded Muchalinda Naga Raajaya (about four feet in height) has been transferred to the Archaeological Museum in Trincomalee.
Ancient site Mahaweli river ford in Koddiyar Pattu: Here are the remains of a structure with 42 pillars. On one of these pillars is an inscription.

Sri Gajaba Len Vihara: On an eminence strewn with large boulders at a site on the right bank of the Morawewa colony are several drip ledged caves. In three of these there are Brahmi inscriptions.

Ancient site at Etabendiwewa: (on a by-road between 87th and 88th mile post on the Horowupotana—Trincomalee road).There are remains of a dagaba built on a square terrace which has been vandalised. On each of the four sides of the terrace is a flight of steps with plain guard stones and a moonstone. West of the dagaba are the ruins of a building.

Ancient site Pulmodai: About 1 1/2 miles away from the Ilmenite factory is an ancient site where there are a number of caves. In one cave is a Brahmi inscription. Close by is a pillared building with the torso of a Buddha statue.

Trincomalee had been home to numerous Buddhist temples and Vihara (Monasteries) since the reign of King Dutugamunu (161-137 BC). The Hero of the nation, King Dutugamunu is believed to have built many viharas and monasteries at Gokanna in the second century B.C. A map prepared in 1982 by M.H.Sirisoma, Department of Archaeology listed 276 sites of ‘archaeological interest’ in the northern and eastern provinces.

Triyaya, Weligam Vehera and Seruwila Raja Maha Vihara and Kuchchaveli are three living Buddhist heritage sites of the Trincomalee district. Modern Hindu shrine named Koneswaram Kovil was erected in the Nineteen forties.” The so called historic kovil was built only recently after dismantling the ancient Buddhist Temple at the same place. There are people who have seen the Buddhist temple in the forties,” Professor Nalin de Silva, 25th July 2003.

Trincomalee during Anurdhapura era and Polonnaruwa era

The city of Trincomalee had served as a major conduit for Sri Lanka’s seaborne trade during the Anuradhapura and Polonnaruwa.

Captain Robert Knox, 1659 at Trincomalee
Captain Robert Knox Snr. accompanied by his son Robert Knox, Jnr. set sail by 'Anne' in London on January 21, 1658 on a trading expedition to East Indies under the British East India Company. After a voyage of about one year and nine months, the crew encountered stormy Weather along the Coromandel Coast and Bay of Bengal. With the mast broken and the sails torn, “Anne” landed near Kottiar Bay (estuary of Mahaweli Ganga,) on November 19, 1659. The crew of the ship was invited to ashore and was taken captive on the orders from the King Rajasinghe II of Kandy (1629-1687 A.D.) in Kandy.

Trincomalee during the colonial era

Trincomalee’s strategic location has made it flash point during the colonial era. Trincomalee’s long military began in 1617 when five Danish ships sailed into Koddiyar Bay under a commander named Ove Giedde. King Rajasinghe the second having a lively appreciation of the Port 's value, Giedde's negotiations proved fruitless; and he sailed away, leaving one wreck behind.
The Portuguese, already having sway in the coastal areas of Sri Lanka, now set themselves upon capturing Trincomaleeand in 1624 completed the construction of a fort there.

This fortlet - it had but three bastions –built by the Portuguese in 1624, was taken by the Dutch in 1639 only to be abandoned soon afterwards. In 1675, the fort was re-fortified and named Fort Frederick after Frederick the Great. It is part of those walls and gate that still stand, as the next focal point of interest in Trincomalee besides the harbor.

Trincomalee and Dutch East India Company

E. T. Kannangara, in “Jaffna and the Sinhala heritage” referring to more recent times says in the treaty between the Sinhala king and the Dutch East India Company signed in 1766 A.C. Batticaloa is mentioned as Puliyanduwa and Trincomalee as Thirikunamala in the treaty.

In 1795, a British fleet lay off Trincomalee, ostensibly come to protect the Dutch against the French, but under secret orders to capture Trincomalee at all events, for its growing strategic importance. The bedevilled Dutch, unsure where loyalty-or expediency-lay, hesitated. But Colonel James Stuart, opening a practicable breach in the walls after a four-day bombardment, clinched the matter. And Trincomalee became - England's first possession in Ceylon. By the British takeover in 1795, the city had changed hands another seven times.

Trincomalee harbor during the Second World War

The British and the Allied Powers chose it as the chief naval base for the entire South East Asia and Far East Command during World War 11, The Japanese attack at Trincomalee's harbor in 1942 wasn’t successful in spite of a suicide attack on the Trincomalee fuel tanks. Sri Lanka, then called Ceylon, did not face a real threat of an invasion by the Japanese at any point during the war.

Picture gallery of Trincomalee

Tissamaharama, Sri Lanka

Location of Tissamaharama

Tissamaharama is located 270km south of Colombo.

Reaching Tissamaharama

Tissamaharama can be reached by A2 southern main road travelling via Galle and Hambantota.

Tissmaharama Town

Though Tissamaharama is visited mainly in view of it being the gateway to Yala National Park, Tissa as it is affectionately called, in its own right, is a major cultural and nature attraction. Three ancient stupas and two ancient irrigation reservoirs make Tisssamaharama worth touring. On the northern side, the town is bounded by lovely expanse of paddy fields. In the middle of the paddy fields is Santagiri or Sandagiri dagaba, the largest stupa at Tissamaharama.

History of Tissamaharama

Tissamaharama known by the name of Mahagama in the ancient times was founded by Prince Mahanaga, brother of King Devanampiyatissa in the third century BC. The settlement rose to prominence during the reign of King Kavantissa, father of King Dutugamunu. It was during this period that Tissmaharama’s three stupas and the two ancient irrigation reservoirs were built. According to the chronicles, around 12,000 Arahats Buddhist monks had lived in Tissamaharama and its surroundings during the era of King Kavantissa.

During the era in which the monasteries flourished in the ancient Rajarata of north central plains, many a similar monasteries and dagaba were built in Magama, the capital of the southern region of Sri Lanka.

Tissa weva Reserervoir in Tissamaharama

Just a kilometer north of the Tissmaharama town spreads the vast ancient irrigation reservoir called Tissa wewa. The shore of the lake nearest to the town of Tissamaharama is regularly crowded with the villagers and the tourists. The massive embankment that bounds the southern shore of the reservoir is line by trees. To the east of the far end of Tissa weva reservoir is another man-made irrigation reservoir called Debera Weva. Both reservoirs are havens for bird life.

Santagiri or Sandagiri dagaba in Tissamaharama

Sandagiri stupa was built by the regional ruler Prince Mahanaga in the third century B.C. Sandagiri stupa is 55m in height and 165m in circumference. According to the chronicles, around 12,000 Arahats have lived in the Tissa area during the life and times of King Kavantissa who, deposited the forehead relic of the Buddha in Sandagiri stupa.

Historical chronicles narrates that some of the various relics and gifts sent by Emperor Asoka to King Devanmpiyatissa (250-210 BC) of Sri Lanka were enshrined in the Sandagiri Stupa of Ruhuna. However, the first provincial ruler to have begun the construction of sacred places of Buddhist worship in Ruhuna was Mahanaga. Historical chronicles narrate that Buddha, in his third visit to Sri Lanka arrived at Tissamaharama and hence the ancient settlement is considered sixteen sacred locations of the island.

Yatala dagoba in Tissamaharama

A short stroll along the road from the southwest corner of Tissa weva is Yatala dagoba and further down about half a kilometer is Menik dagoba. The small cluster of pillars located in the midway are the ruins of an ancient monastery called Galkanunmandiya. Yatala Dagoba that has been identified as Mani Chethiya and Yattalaya in various historical documents was built by Prince Mahanaga in the 3rd century BC.

Picture gallery of Tissamaharama